JWST Integral Field Spectroscopy
JWST integral field spectroscopy (IFS) is the process of dissecting an astronomical scene into multiple spatial components and dispersing each component with a spectrograph in order to provide spatially resolved spectroscopic information.
Integral field units (IFUs) combine imaging and spectroscopic capabilities to acquire spatially resolved 2-dimensional spectroscopy in a single astronomical exposure. By dispersing the light from discrete spatial elements of the field of view, an image of the source is acquired at each wavelength, and (equivalently) a spectrum is captured at each spatial position (Figure 1). This provides a powerful dataset to study the characteristics of a wide variety of extended astronomical sources, including galaxies, nebulae and crowded stellar fields.
Why use an integral field unit (IFU)?
Integral field units offer combined spatial and spectral information for an astronomical target; thought of another way, they provide a full spectrum for every spatial position in the field of view. This allows them to efficiently produce spatial maps of spectroscopic quantities such as kinematics and diagnostic line ratio strengths. Additionally, IFUs are not affected by traditional slit loss problems (any light lost from one optical element is recovered by the adjacent element), reduce the need for complicated target acquisition procedures (since objects do not need to be carefully centered within a single slit), and provide a better estimate of the extended background/foreground structures surrounding the astrophysical object of interest. IFUs thus provide extremely dense information coverage for a single object, typically at the cost of a relatively small field of view.
The IFUs aboard JWST are thus particularly useful for obtaining spectral maps of extended sources up to a few arcseconds in size (or larger, with mosaicing), or for obtaining spectra of point sources in which there is expected to be significant background emission which must be characterized and subtracted. Additionally, for mid-infrared wavelengths, the MIRI IFU is the only instrument capable of obtaining moderate resolution spectroscopy longward of 5 μm.
The JWST IFUs
JWST has 2 IFUs: the MIRI medium resolution spectrometer (MRS) provides R ~ 1,500–3,500 spectroscopy from wavelengths of 5 to 28 μm over a contiguous field of view up to 7" × 8" in size, while NIRSpec provides R ~ 100, 1,000, and 2,700 spectroscopy from 0.6 to 5.3 μm over a contiguous field of view 3" × 3" in size. Details of the individual instruments are provided in the articles listed below.
- MIRI Medium Resolution Spectroscopy - An overview of the MIRI MRS
- MIRI MRS Dithering - Detailed information on MRS dithering strategies
- MIRI MRS Mosaics - Detailed information on MRS mosaicing strategies
- MIRI MRS Dedicated Sky Observations - MRS background subtraction
- MIRI MRS Target Acquisition - Target acquisition procedures for the MRS
- MIRI MRS hardware
- MIRI MRS APT Template
- NIRSpec IFU Spectroscopy
Considerations for observing with the JWST IFUs
All astronomical scenes will contain signal from both the target of interest and background/foreground signal arising from zodiacal light, telescope thermal emission, or a variety of astrophysical sources. In many cases, it will be desirable to measure this signal so that it can be reliably removed from the spectra of the object of interest, especially longwards of 15 μm where telescope thermal emission dominates the background signal.
Traditional methods of dealing with background subtraction for IFS data have been two-fold, depending on the structure of the science target. For point source targets (or those that are small compared to the field of view), A/B style dithering is often performed to observe the target with 2 or more exposures widely spaced enough that each exposure can serve as the background for the other. This approach maximizes the on-source integration time of the telescope. For extended sources that fill an appreciable fraction of the field of view however, such simple in-scene dithering is insufficient to move the science target far enough on the detector. In such cases, a dedicated off-source background observation is typically obtained in order to provide a clean measurement of the background signal in a part of the sky known to be free of emission from the science target.
These different methods are reflected in the JWST Exposure Time Calculator as nod-in-scene (for point source targets) or nod-off-scene (for extended targets), as detailed in JWST ETC IFU Nod in Scene and IFU Nod off Scene Strategy.
Best practice procedures for both MIRI and NIRSpec background observations are currently under development and will be updated during commissioning.
Since the JWST IFUs are spatially undersampled at most wavelengths, it is important to obtain dithered observations in order to optimize the image quality of the resulting data cubes. Detailed MIRI MRS and NIRSpec dither patterns have been designed that use sub-integer offsets to improve the sampling of the JWST point spread function. In addition to improving the spatial sampling (and corresponding image quality), dithering can also improve the spectral sampling of the IFUs, help mitigate the impact of bad pixels by sampling a source with redundant detector locations, and (in some cases) allow for measurement of the background signal in the IFU field of view.
In any integral field spectrograph, the size and shape of the spatial point spread function (PSF) and the spectral line spread function (LSF) (i.e., the spectral resolution) can change over the IFU's field of view. Any analyses working with these data should bear this in mind; estimates of the variability will become available during the commissioning and calibration process.
The JWST IFUs can be used to observe both point sources (e.g., stars) and diffuse sources (e.g., nebulae). The absolute pointing accuracy of JWST is 0.1" (1 sigma, per axis) from the Fine Guidance Sensors; if more precise positioning of the object in the IFU field of view is required, either because the target is extended or its coordinates are uncertain, or it will be observed using large dithers or nods, then target acquisition should be performed using a bright point source. If the science target is diffuse, a nearby point source should be used for target acquisition instead.
Working with integral field data
Numerous tools and techniques have been developed for interacting with and visualizing IFS data; additional information will be added here as it becomes available.
- Color maps: Since a major product of IFS data is two-dimensional maps of astrophysical quantities, color is often used to convey information in such plots. Many commonly-available color maps (e.g., 'jet') can obscure genuine features in data and create perceived structures when none exist, in addition to being difficult to read for those with color blindness. Well-researched perceptually uniform alternatives include viridis, and the divergent RdBu options available in many modern plotting programs. Color lookup tables (e.g., for use with ds9) are available for both viridis and RdBu.
- Covariance: Since spectral data cubes are constructed from algorithms that reformat dispersed spectra, there is often significant covariance between adjacent spaxels in a data cube. There are a variety of methods that have been developed to account for this covariance in analyses of stacked spectra.
- Voronoi binning: This is a classic technique used to construct spatial binning regions of varying size and shape where the corresponding spectra reach fixed continuum signal to noise.
- Data cube construction: A variety of techniques exist to reformat pixel-level data into a convenient 3-D cube format, but the optimal method of constructing these cubes can vary depending on the science case.
- JWST analysis tools: These tools allow the user to work with IFU data products within the JWST software ecosystem.
Example science programs
NIRSpec IFU and MIRI MRS Observations of Cassiopeia A
MIRI MRS and NIRSpec IFU Observations of SN 1987A
MIRI MRS Spectroscopy of a Late M Star
NIRSpec IFU and Fixed Slit Observations of Near-Earth Asteroids
- IFS Wiki: A shared resource for historical background and tips/tricks for working with IFS data
- 3D Spectroscopy in Astronomy: An introductory text based on lectures at the Canary Island Winter School