NIRSpec's multi-object spectroscopy (MOS) mode uses the micro-shutter assembly (MSA), which consists of roughly a quarter million configurable shutters that are 0.20" × 0.46" in size. MSA shutters can be opened in adjacent rows to create customizable and positionable spectroscopy slits (slitlets) on prime science targets of interest. Because of the very small shutter size, NIRSpec MSA spectral data quality will benefit significantly from accurate astrometric knowledge of the positions of planned science sources.
Images acquired with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) usually have an the internal relative astrometric accuracy of 5–10 mas that is optimal for planning NIRSpec observations. Tiled mosaics of multiple HST image fields may have slightly decreased accuracy compared to the 5 mas level, but are an improvement over the typical in-field relative accuracy of lower resolution space-based images (i.e., Spitzer Space Telescope) or ground-based cameras. Images from the HST ACS or WFC3 can provide the necessary in-field accuracy for NIRSpec spectroscopy planning. However, there are reasons why other sources of imaging may be necessary: some fields of interest have no or insufficient HST imaging, galactic fields have moderate proper motions that would preclude using HST imaging from earlier epochs, and extragalactic regions observed with HST may lack source detections required for planning NIRSpec observations at wavelengths beyond 2 μm.
Moreover, Hubble's Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) infrared (IR) camera spans a smaller footprint than the NIRSpec MSA; a single WFC3 IR image may not provide the best catalog source for NIRSpec MOS spectroscopy across the full field of view. Images acquired with the Spitzer Space Telescope cameras or most ground-based imagers do not have adequate astrometric accuracy or field coverage for optimal NIRSpec MOS spectroscopy planning. Thus, optimal NIRSpec MOS planning and data calibration may require pre-imaging observations with JWST's Near-Infrared Camera (NIRCam) to accurately establish source positions for alignment and configuration of the NIRSpec MSAs and also for proper target acquisition (MSATA) for IFU and FS science.
What is pre-imaging and when is it needed?
The process of pre-imaging an astronomical field has been developed to support the increased demand for multiplexing spectroscopy. "Pre-imaging" observations are images acquired using the same telescope as the MOS spectroscopy in the same observing semester or cycle, though not necessarily the same instrument. Pre-images for MOS programs are used to define field astrometry for target acquisition and aperture slit placement on science objects. Rapid availability and accuracy of MOS planning pre-images is very important for the success of spectroscopy planning.
The NIRSpec MSA is a fixed grid of micro-shutters, hence science sources of interest cannot all be perfectly centered within their configured shutters or slits. These centering offsets and the very small NIRSpec MSA shutter size result in moderate flux that can be lost outside of the slit. Slit throughput loss is a function of wavelength and the relative placement of the science sources within the MSA shutters. Very high quality planning astrometry will limit calibration errors that result from uncertain spectral source positioning after target acquisition. In-field relative astrometry of 5–10 mas or better is needed to limit the excess flux calibration error for point source observations.
NIRCam is the workhorse imaging camera at 1–5 μm wavelengths for JWST. It is the preferred camera for high quality images for same-cycle JWST NIRSpec spectroscopy and target acquisition planning. NIRCam will provide imaging for high precision source catalogs that can be used to plan follow-up spectroscopy with NIRSpec. For this reason, same-cycle imaging with NIRCam (referred to as "NIRCam pre-imaging") is available to support and plan programs that use the NIRSpec MSA for spectroscopy or target acquisition.
In JWST observing cycle 2 and beyond, NIRCam images acquired in previous cycles will be excellent resources for NIRSpec observation planning. These images are not acquired using the same process as the NIRCam pre-imaging defined here. The NIRCam pre-imaging process discussed here refers primarily to planning images acquired in the same observing cycle as the NIRSpec spectroscopy.
Observing process for NIRSpec spectroscopy with NIRCam pre-imaging
JWST NIRSpec MSA-based observations (MOS or MSATA) require a fixed orient assignment in order to plan the spectroscopy or MSA target acquisition. Across the 3.4' × 3.6' field of view of NIRSpec, very small deviations away from a planned orient can cause science sources to move out of their MSA shutters, as well as cause problems with the target acquisition reference star placement locations. As a result, NIRSpec programs that use the MSA must have a follow-up planning process after the proposal submission and program acceptance. The MSA observations will need to be updated for “flight-ready” status once pre-imaging observations are obtained and a fixed aperture position angle and observation execution window is assigned.
Figure 1 shows the timeline for a sample NIRSpec science program that uses the MSA and requests JWST NIRCam pre-imaging.
The timeline includes a number of milestones:
At the present time, there is a recommended minimum of 60 days between the JWST NIRCam pre-imaging observations and the JWST NIRSpec spectroscopy observations (both shown in red in Figure 1); one month for spectroscopy planning by the user, and one month for instrument scientist and program coordinator verification and scheduling.
The absolute minimum allowed time frame between JWST NIRCam pre-imaging observations and the JWST NIRSpec spectroscopy observations is 42 days: 4 weeks for internal STScI review and processing, leaving just 2 weeks for teams to plan the spectroscopy after NIRCam images are acquired. The flow presented in Figure 1 will be reviewed and updated as operational experience is gained with the NIRCam pre-imaging process during Cycle 1.
Observing with NIRCam for NIRSpec spectroscopy planning
Figure 2 shows the four NIRSpec MSA quadrants projected onto the sky; for comparison, the NIRCam imager fields of view—its long and short wavelength channels—are also shown. The NIRCam long and short wavelength detectors will image the same field of view but for illustration, are shown separately. It is evident that the NIRSpec field of view is large in comparison to that of NIRCam. For this reason, creating a finder image with NIRCam in order to cover the NIRSpec MOS field of interest will require some planning, including dither patterns and mosaicking.
NIRCam options for pre-imaging: filters, dithers and mosaics
The Near Infrared Camera (NIRCam) is the 1–5 μm imager on the JWST and will provide excellent sensitivity imaging for precision source catalogs that can be used to plan follow-up spectroscopy with NIRSpec. NIRCam acquires simultaneous images in two channels—the short wavelength channel (SWC) and long wavelength channel (LWC)—using 10 detectors. The two channels have a wide range of filter options available including wide, medium, and narrow width filters that are matched to emission features. The NIRCam F115W filter available in the SWC is very well matched in profile to the NIRSpec F110W filter, which is used primarily for MSA target acquisition with NIRSpec.
The NIRCam instrument has a footprint that spans an extent of 5.1' × 2.2' on the sky. There is a gap of ~40′′ between the two NIRCam modules. The field of the SWC is sampled by eight detectors with 32 mas/pixel and 5′′ gaps in between individual module detectors, and the LWC uses two detectors with 65 mas/pixel (see Figure 2).
NIRCam SWC and LWC data can be acquired with dithers and mosaics to create images that cover the more complete observing footprint of the NIRSpec field of view. There are a few available options that can achieve the full field coverage of the NIRSpec MSA footprint. Table 1 shows three recommended dither patterns that can be used to provide near continuous (>95%) field coverage of the NIRCam footprint (covering detector gaps) in both the SWC and LWC channels. All of these dither patterns come from the FULL dither option for NIRCam, which provides the patterns designed to span the detectors and cover the full field of the instrument. At present, an additional FULLBOX dither pattern suitable for tiling an area for NIRSpec follow-up observations has been defined, called 8NIRSPEC. Further details on this and other NIRCam tiling patterns can be found at NIRCam Primary Dithers.
The FULL3 TIGHT pattern consists of three offset positions that are optimally designed to cover the gaps in the SWC and provide good coverage and depth in the central area of the dithered image. The FULL3 pattern is similar to FULL3 TIGHT, but the offsets in the vertical direction are larger which provides wider overall field coverage, but more extended detector gaps toward the edges. The FULL6 pattern provides deep field coverage in the central regions of the field and over a more extended footprint than either of the 3-point patterns can provide. The fixed offsets defined for each dither pattern are listed in Table 1. Figure 3 shows two examples of these dither patterns; the FULL3 TIGHT and FULL6 dither coverage, overplotted with the NIRSpec MSA footprint (at the same observatory orient angle). In order to completely cover the NIRSpec MSA field of view, one of the dither pattern, below, plus a mosaic tile position may be necessary.
The FULLBOX 8NIRSPEC dither pattern covers a large area: 6' × 5' to serve as pre-imaging for NIRSpec MSA spectroscopy. It consists of eight pointings with offsets listed in Table 1. Note that the fifth dither and the return to the start are very large dithers and will result in visit splitting for any target.
Table 1. Recommended NIRCam dither patterns for pre-imaging
NIRCam imaging acquired with the described FULL dither options from Table 1 may be insufficient for planning spectroscopy over the full NIRSpec field of view. However, NIRCam observations can also be mosaicked or tiled to create a wider image, beyond the size of the main NIRCam footprint. The 8NIRSPEC dither pattern is large enough to accommodate the MSA footprint.
The NIRSpec Observation Visualization Tool was created to investigate field coverage between the NIRCam and NIRSpec MSA footprints in support of the pre-imaging process.
Beck et al. 2016 SPIE 9910, 12
Coe, D. 2017, JWST-STScI-005798