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JWST NIRCam integrations are defined as groups of detector readouts, some of which are averaged and others skipped, according to MULTIACCUM patterns.


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Introduction

Parent page: NIRCam Instrumentation → NIRCam Detectors

As charge accumulates during a NIRCam integration, the detectorsare read out multiple times, non-destructively, sampling the data while conserving the charge in each pixel. This MULTIACCUM technique enables “up-the-ramp” fitting of count rates to multiple data samples obtained over time. Up-the-ramp fitting facilitates cosmic ray rejection, reduces the effective readout noise (approximately by the square root of the number of samples), and increases the dynamic range of the final image (sampling count rates of bright sources before they saturate).

Each 16-bit (2 byte) pixel is read out, in turn, in 10 µs. This data rate could reach 540 GB/day (accounting for overheads) when using all 10 detectors with four simultaneous outputs each. This would overfill the onboard solid state recorder, which can store about 57 GB of data for science, downloaded twice daily.

To reduce the data rates and enable longer exposures, readout patterns are defined (see Figure 1). Each readout pattern is a group of up to 20 detector reads (Nsamples). Each group yields a single saved image obtained by averaging as many as eight of the reads (Nframes). Any remaining reads are discarded (Nskip).

Choosing to average more frames yields a more precise average but also allows more time for a potential cosmic ray impact, in which case the entire group must be discarded from the integration ramp. The choice involves a tradeoff, but initial estimates suggest that averaging more frames generally yields slightly higher signal to noise for a given group length and integration time (Robberto 2009, 2010).

Multiple groups of non-destructive reads are generally taken consecutively, resulting in an integration ramp for each pixel. Integrations are terminated by a reset, which clears accumulated charge from the pixels. Multiple integrations can be executed without interruption in a single exposure, yielding a photon collection duration at each dither position.

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Figure 1. Charge accumulation within a pixel in a NIRCam exposure

Charge accumulation within a pixel in a NIRCam exposure

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This example exposure consists of two integration ramps, each with three groups using the SHALLOW4 1 MULTIACCUM readout pattern: five samples, with four frames averaged and one skipped frame. All group averages are saved along with the first frame of each integration. Note that skipped reads are not executed in the final group of each integration.


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Available readout patterns

NIRCam has nine available readout patterns (see Table 1 and Figure 2). Their names encode their group size (Nsamples) followed by the number of averaged samples (Nframes). The five available group sizes (Nsamples = 1, 2, 5, 10, and 20) are named according to their potential applications (RAPID, "BRIGHT," "SHALLOW," "MEDIUM," and "DEEP," respectively). So for example, a DEEP8 group contains 20 samples (Nsamples = 20), eight of which are averaged (Nframes = 8) and 12 of which are skipped (Nskip = 12).

Each integration may contain up to 10 groups (Ngroups = 10) or more for the DEEP2 and DEEP8 patterns in most observing modes. And in most cases, 10 integrations are allowed per exposure, so long as the total exposure time remains within allowed limits. Tighter restrictions are placed on the RAPID and BRIGHT2 patterns, which save all frames: when all 10 full detectors are being read, exposures are limited to a single integration of Ngroups = 4 or less.

Each detector readout takes 10.737 s for the full frame (2048 × 2048 pixels using four outputs) or as little as 49.4 ms for the smallest supported science subarray (64 × 64 pixels). Each pixel is read out in turn; therefore, the integration start time varies slightly from one pixel to the next. The total integration time is identical for all pixels.

The tables and diagrams below illustrate the nine readout patterns available for NIRCam observations. Tables 2 and 3 give total integration times achievable with multiple groups.

 

Table 1. Available NIRCam MULTIACCUM readout patterns

Readout patternSamples per group
(Nsamples =
Nframes + Nskip
Frames averaged
in each group
(Nframes)
RAPID11
BRIGHT121
BRIGHT222
SHALLOW252
SHALLOW454
MEDIUM2102
MEDIUM8108
DEEP2202
DEEP8208

 

Each readout pattern name describes its potential application based on the number of samples (Nsamples). For example, a RAPID group consists of a single sample, and a "DEEP" group consists of 20 samples. Each name (except RAPID) ends in a number signifying the number of averaged frames in each group (Nframes). Any remaining frames are discarded (Nskip).

 

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Figure 2. Charge accumulation schematic diagrams for all available NIRCam readout patterns

Readout of both NIRCam long wavelength detectors

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Diagrams of all readout patterns described in Table 1. Blue frames are co-added and saved as groups; red frames are skipped. Axes are signal vs. time as in Figure 1.



Frame 0

For all readout patterns that involve averaging frames into groups (i.e., all patterns except RAPID or BRIGHT1), the initial frame will always be saved and is termed “frame 0”. It is saved as a separate extension in the data file, and its purpose is to increase the dynamic range of the data. If the first averaged group of an integration is saturated, then the photon count rate cannot be determined; however, frame 0 may not have reached full well and could therefore be used to estimate the count rate (see Figure 3). Similarly, if an integration has been contaminated by a cosmic ray that hits within the first group (and after the first frame), frame 0 may still be trusted even though the group has to be discarded. 

Because the count rate in such cases will be determined by calculating the slope using frame 0, it is important that the bias of the detectors is very well characterized. Any uncertainty on the signal level at the very beginning of an integration (the “reset” or “bias” level) due to, for example, global electronic offsets or pixel-dependent kTC (thermal) noise, will have a significant effect on slopes determined using only frame 0 (Rest 2018, in preparation). If the count rate measured in frame 0 is very high, the associated Poisson noise can dominate the uncertainty of the reset level, making the use of the single frame 0 data point entirely appropriate. To read more about the bias correction of the JWST science calibration pipeline, please refer to the first stage of calibrations: CALWEBB_DETECTOR1

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Figure 3. An example SHALLOW4 ramp that saturates in the first averaged group

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In this example of a SHALLOW4 integration ramp, the first averaged group is "soft" saturated—the non-linearity in the ramp becomes significant enough that it cannot be reliably corrected. The signal level in subsequent groups reaches full well depth, or "hard" saturation. The saturated groups must be discarded and cannot be used to determine the count rate. Frame 0, saved separately, is not saturated and can be used to determine the count rate. The reset point is offset slightly from a signal level of 0 to indicate the uncertainty on the bias level.



Integration times

Tables 2 and 3 give integration times for groups of reads of the full frame detector (2048 × 2048 pixels) using four outputs.

Integration time = Tframe × (Ngroups × Nsamples – Nskip)

Nsamples = Nframes + Nskip
(Nsamples, defined here for clarity, is not an official MULTIACCUM parameter.)

Tframe = 10.73677 s for the full detector that's read out through four outputs.

Note that skipped reads at the end of each integration are not executed.

For example, three groups of SHALLOW4 consist of two groups of five reads plus a final group of four reads. The 14 total reads of the full detector take 150.3 s. Each pixel collects photons for this amount of time. The times given below follow this definition. These are reported as Science time (at the Duration field) by APT.

However, the last pixel in each detector begins collecting photons 10.7 s after the first pixel. Thus the exposure and readout process takes 161 s to complete for the full detectors. This is the Exposure Time reported by the APT and ETC.

 

Table 2. Pixel integration times (s) for groups of short readout patterns for the full detector

GROUP PATTERN RAPIDBRIGHT1BRIGHT2SHALLOW2SHALLOW4
GROUP
PARAMETERS 

Nsamples

12255
Nframes  1 1 2 2 4
Nskip  0 1 0 3 1
Ngroups110.710.721.521.542.9
221.532.242.975.296.6
332.253.764.4128.8150.3
442.975.285.9182.5204.0
553.796.6107.4236.2257.7
664.4118.1128.8289.9311.4
775.2139.6150.3343.6365.0
885.9161.1171.8397.3418.7
996.6182.5193.3450.9472.4
10107.4204.0214.7504.6526.1

 
The RAPID and BRIGHT2 patterns are limited to four groups per integration when reading out the full detectors in both modules. This limit increases to 10 groups (shown in gray) when using a single module (full detectors or subarrays). The limit is always 10 groups for BRIGHT1, SHALLOW2, SHALLOW4, MEDIUM2 and MEDIUM8 patterns listed in Table 3.  Numbers of saved and skipped frames (Nframes and Nskip) are shown in green and orange, respectively, as in Figure 1.

 

Table 3. Pixel integration times (s) for groups of long readout patterns for the full detector

GROUP PATTERN MEDIUM2MEDIUM8DEEP2DEEP8
GROUP
PARAMETERS 

Nsamples

10102020

Nframes

2 8 2 8
Nskip 8 2 18 12
Ngroups121.585.921.585.9
2128.8193.3236.2300.6
3236.2300.6450.9515.4
4343.6408.0665.7730.1
5450.9515.4880.4944.8
6558.3622.71095.11159.6
7665.7730.11309.91374.3
8773.0837.51524.61589.0
9880.4944.81739.41803.8
10987.81052.21954.12018.5
11  2168.82233.2
12  2383.62448.0
13  2598.32662.7
14  2813.02877.5
15  3027.83092.2
16  3242.53306.9
17  3457.23521.7
18  3672.03736.4
19  3886.73951.1
20  4101.44165.9


"MEDIUM" and "DEEP" patterns are limited to 10 and 20 groups per integration, respectively, in imaging and time-series imaging modes. In other modes, the maximum Ngroups varies for "DEEP" patterns.



 


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References

Robberto, M., 2009, JWST-STScI-001721, SM-12
NIRCAM Optimal Readout Modes

Robberto, M., 2010, JWST-STScI-002100, SM-12
NIRCAM Optimal Readout II: General Case (Including Photon Noise)

JWST technical documents


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Last updated

November 17, 2017

  • TFRAME updated from 10.73676 to 10.73677 s

  • noted APT "Science Time"


June 20, 2017

  • Updated explanation of exposure times


Published December 24, 2016


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Published March 02, 2017