NIRCam Target Acquisition Overview
Target acquisition (TA) is a procedure that centroids a source and precisely places it within an aperture or subarray. TA is discussed in the context of the relevant NIRCam observing modes on the following articles:
- NIRCam Coronagraphic Target Acquisition
A description of the setup of TA observations within the Astronomer's Proposal Tool (APT) can be found on the NIRCam APT template pages for time-series imaging, grism time series, and coronagraphic imaging. For a description of how to estimate the exposure time required to achieve the necessary centroid accuracy, please visit the JWST ETC NIRCam Target Acquisition article.
JWST target location algorithm
The following steps outline the general target acquisition procedure executed by the on-board software:
- Two difference images are created from the individual groups in the TA exposure: one from the middle group to the first group, and one from the last group to the middle group.
- These difference images are then combined via the minimum operator on a pixel-by-pixel basis to reject cosmic rays.
- The resulting image is corrected for the flat field.
- Known bad pixels are flagged and replaced using a pixel mask and nearest-neighbor sampling.
- The image is then smoothed with a 3 × 3 pixel checkbox, as illustrated in Figure 1.
- Next, a 32 × 32 postage stamp subarray is extracted, centered on the brightest pixel in the smoothed image.
- The background is removed by subtracting the mean of the faintest 40% of pixels in the 32 × 32 postage stamp.
- Final centroiding using at 1st-moment calculation with a 9 × 9 (4 pixel radius) centroid box (iterative).
Much of this process is generic to all instruments, but the parameters do vary somewhat between them (e.g., checkbox size, centroid box size, fraction of pixels for background subtraction).
The TA is usually performed on the science target, though it can also be performed on an object within the visit-splitting distance of the science target's position. An offset <20″ is recommended to maximize the final pointing precision.
Perrin, M. et al. 2013, JWST-STScI-003472
Sample Target Acquisition Scenarios for JWST