Treatment of limiting contrast (Climit) is based on current information about telescope aberrations and the expected performance of JWST NIRCam.
Limiting contrast (Climit(s) ) is the companion-to-host flux ratio of the minimum detectable companion. It is the detection limit and the best that can be done.
See the article Contrast Considerations for JWST High-Contrast Imaging for a general treatment of "contrast" (C), including Climit(s) in particular.
Climit(s) is a function of essentially everything related to high contrast imaging (HCI): myriad eclectic technical factors and procedures, end-to-end.
This treatment of Climit(s) for NIRCam is based on Beichman, C. A., et al. 2010.
Limiting contrast, Climit(s), for NIRCam
Figure 1 shows the best available treatment of Climit(s) for the 5 NIRCam coronagraphs. This graphic is adapted from Figure 6 in Beichman et al. (2010).
For the round occulting masks, the assumed filters are F210M, F335M, and F430M. For the bar-shaped masks, the filters are F210M and F430M.
The "technical factors" behind the curves in Figure 1 include:
- Images are taken at roll angles differing by 10°, and differenced in post-processing.
- Random positional errors of 10 mas and and wavefront errors of 10 nm are introduced between rolls.
- False-alarm probability of 6 × 10–7 (5-sigma) is adopted. (Normally distributed errors with zero mean are assumed after image differencing.)
- Currently available—and outdated— estimates of JWST aberrations are adopted.
Figure 1 shows the estimated functions Climit(s) for the 5 NIRCam coronagraphs as a function of the apparent separation (s) in arcseconds.
The interpretation of these results is as follows. If the user's operating point (s, Cflux) lies above a color curve, that source is estimated to be detectable—but only under the same technical and procedural assumptions of Beichman et al. (2010).
This is the best information on limiting coronagraphic performance for NIRCam at the current time. In the future, with a better understandings of wavefront errors and other technical factors—or when users become interested in different combinations of technical factors—improved calculations of Climit(s) will be made available.
Meanwhile, users may be able to extrapolate estimates of Climit(s) using the Exposure Time Calculator (ETC) and other proposal tools.
Science Use Cases
Astronomer's Proposal Tool
JWST Astronomers Proposal Tool Overview
JWST High-Contrast Imaging in APT
JWST APT Coronagraphic Sequence Examples
NIRCam Coronagraphic Imaging Template APT Guide
JWST APT Target Acquisition
JWST APT Special Requirements
Exposure Time Calculator
Beichman, C. A., et al. 2010, PASP, 122:162
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