JWST can track and observe planets, satellites, and nearly all comets and asteroids more than 1 AU from the Sun.
JWST offers the capabilities necessary for observing Solar System ("moving") targets. Imaging and low- and medium-resolution spectroscopy spanning 0.6–28.5 μm provide high sensitivity and spatial resolution, both without interference by Earth's atmosphere. JWST is on a solar orbit near Earth's L2 point, so scheduling is much more flexible and efficient than for HST (which is in a low-Earth orbit). The thermal design of JWST only allows Solar System targets to be observed near quadrature; observations at opposition are not feasible.
An overview of JWST's Solar System capabilities and exploration of some possible science applications can be found in Milam et al. (2016), Norwood et al. (2015), and this overview flyer. The following list includes links to 2-page flyers on some potential science investigations:
Asteroids: Surface composition, thermal properties
- Comets: Coma composition, coma structure and rotation rate, D-H ratio, organics and PAHs
- Giant planets: Vertical and horizontal cloud structures, global circulation, chemistry and composition, thermodynamics
- Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs): Surface composition, diameter/albedo, colors, binarity
Mars: Atmospheric composition, evolution of dust storms and clouds
Rings and small satellites: Discovery and characterization, transient phenomena (ring arcs and spokes), composition
Titan: Atmospheric composition, clouds and hazes, surface temperature, surface changes
More detailed examinations of 10 science areas, and a summary of JWST capabilities and operations for moving targets, can be found in a January 2016 special issue of PASP.
Presentation chart packets from JWST workshops and Townhall events at AAS Division of Planetary Sciences meetings are linked here. They cover in considerable detail topics such as using the Astronomer's Proposal Tool (APT) for planning observations, tracking capabilities of the observatory, and processing data in the pipeline.
Moving target articles
2016, PASP, 128
Special Issue: Innovative Solar System Science with the James Webb Space Telescope